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Results for: 'NADH'

The Krebs Cycle Animation

By: HWC, Views: 948

The second-stage reactions of aerobic respiration. The second-stage reactions occur in a mitochondrion's inner compartment. In the first preparatory reaction, a carbon atom is stripped from pyruvate and released as carbon dioxide. The remaining carbons combine with coenzyme A and give ...

ETC Protein Complexes & Chemiosmosis (Total ATP Production and ATP Synthase)

By: HWC, Views: 6435

You will notice that FADH2 donates two electrons further downstream than NADH. This results in only two protons being pumped across the inner membrane. The final electron acceptor for these transported electrons is oxygen. Oxygen receives these electrons, plus protons from the aqueous matrix. ...

Fermentation pathways

By: HWC, Views: 702

Both lactate fermentation and alcoholic fermentation begin with pyruvate formed by glycolysis. During lactate fermentation, pyruvate molecules accept electrons and hydrogen from NADH. This transfer regenerates NAD± and converts pyruvate to lactate. The net energy yield is the two ATP...

Energy inputs and release in glycolysis Animation

By: HWC, Views: 671

Glycolysis breaks the six-carbon sugar glucose into two three-carbon molecules of pyruvate. The first steps of glycolysis require an energy input in the form of two phosphate-group transfers from ATP. These phosphorylations raise the energy level of glucose enough to allow the energy-releas...

Fermentation - When Oxygen Is Absent, Pyruvate to Lactate & Pyruvate to Ethanol

By: HWC, Views: 6255

Pyruvate is the end product of glycolysis. If oxygen is present, pyruvate enters the mitochondrion where further energy yielding reactions of the Krebs cycle will take place. However, if oxygen is not present, pyruvate will enter a pathway called fermentation. This pathway regenerates NAD+ fro...

Mitochondrial Structure & ETC Protein Complexes (Protein Complexes and Electron Transport)

By: HWC, Views: 6321

The energy carrying molecules, NADH and FADH2, that were generated in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, now are processed in the mitochondria where their high energy electrons are deposited in an electron chain complex located in the inner mitochondrial membranes. These high-energy electrons now dr...

Glycolysis Animation

By: HWC, Views: 666

In glycolysis, a six-carbon glucose molecule is split into two three-carbon pyruvate molecules. In this animation, each carbon molecule is represented by a red ball. The end products of glycolysis are two molecules of pyruvate. Glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of ...

Krebs cycle : Formation of acetyl coenzyme A and Electron transport chain

By: HWC, Views: 6858

The oxidation of glucose to produce ATP is cellular respiration. Four sets of reactions are involved: Glycolysis Formation of acetyl coenzyme A Krebs cycle reactions Electron transport chain reactions • The second pathway of glucose catabolism, formation of acetyl coenzyme A, is a transi...

Splitting of Sugar, Oxidation/ Reduction & ATP Generation

By: HWC, Views: 6438

The next reaction shows us the meaning of "glycolysis" or the splitting of glucose. The fructose bisphosphate molecule is split into two molecules each containing 3 carbons as the backbone. FBP is split into two 3-carbon molecules called G3P, or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. Notice that the phos...

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