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Structures that affect circulation - heart and MABP

By: HWC, Views: 6283

■ BP is defined as the systolic BP over the diastolic BP. ■ MABP = diastolic BP + 1/3 (systolic BP - diastolic BP). ■ MABP accounts for diastole lasting longer than systole; mean is not equidistant between the two pressures.

HDL (high density lipoprotein)

By: HWC, Views: 5656

HDL cholesterol can be thought of as the “good” cholesterol. (So, in the case of HDL cholesterol, higher levels are actually better.) The body uses cholesterol to make hormones and vitamin D and to support digestion. HDL carries LDL (bad) cholesterol away from the arteries and back to t...

Methods that regulate pH

By: HWC, Views: 6854

• The blood flow redistributes fluids that have different pH values between body regions. • The regulation of the blood pH is important to maintain homeostasis. • Blood pH is regulated by: • Chemical buffers. • The respiratory system. • The urinary system. • All thes...

Chemical Changes

By: HWC, Views: 6111

Observe the burning logs of wood. The logs burn to emit heat, light and carbon dioxide. What is left behind is ash. This residue is a new substance with a different molecular structure than the original wood. Similarly when baking the dough into bread, it becomes fluffy and light. There is a ch...

Role of transport in a cell

By: HWC, Views: 6847

Transport of chemicals across the plasma membrane provides the following functions: Importing molecules for the maintenance of metabolic processes. Exporting chemicals produced by the cell or waste products. Communicating with other cells, allowing for the generation and conduction of a...

Acid-base imbalances - metabolic acidosis and alkalosis

By: HWC, Views: 6737

• Metabolic acidosis typically results from very low HCO3- ion blood concentrations. • Metabolic alkalosis typically results from very high HCO3- ion blood concentrations.

Stimulus (introduction)

By: HWC, Views: 6354

• Blood pressure determines the flow of blood to and from capillaries. • Low blood pressure results in reduced blood flow. • High blood pressure can cause blood vessels to break. In humans, sensitivity is due to portions of the nervous system called receptors. Receptors are typicall...

Erythropoietin (EPO)

By: HWC, Views: 6250

■ Secreted by kidney cells when blood oxygen is low. ■ Targets cells in red bone marrow that will become red blood cells. ■ Promotes increased numbers of mature red blood cells. ■ More mature red blood cells carry more oxygen so blood oxygen level is restored to normal.

T cell receptors

By: HWC, Views: 6390

• T cells are responsible for cell-mediated immunity. • Each T cell contains a unique form of T cell receptor (TCR) on its membrane. • These T cell receptors are produced through a process of genetic recombination which is able to produce millions of different variations. • Each T ce...