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Results for: 'adipose cells'

Insulin (glucose uptake by body cells), glycogenesis and lipogenesis

By: HWC, Views: 702

Insulin is the regulator that allows the sugar from the foods we eat (be it a piece of cake or a stick of celery) to enter our tissues and become part of the metabolic process. Insulin is made by the Islets of Langerhans, which are found in the pancreas of every person. As we previously mentio...

Hormonal feedback loop components & Glucagon (glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis)

By: HWC, Views: 653

The endocrine system maintains many body conditions within normal limits with feedback loops. Each endocrine feedback loop maintains homeostasis using the following components: • Stimulus - a change in a body condition. • Production cell - an endocrine cell that produces a hormone after ...

Lipid catabolism ( ketogenesis and oxidation of glycerol) and Lipid anabolism (lipogenesis)

By: HWC, Views: 840

• During excessive beta oxidation, the two-carbon fatty acid fragments are converted into acidic ketone bodies. • Ketosis, the overproduction of ketone bodies, can lead to acidosis (ketoacidosis) of the blood. • After lipolysis, glycerol is converted to pyruvic acid. • Pyruvic aci...

ACTH/Cortisol (glycogenolysis, protein catabolism, lipolysis and gluconeogenesis)

By: HWC, Views: 689

• A decline in blood glucose concentration stimulates corticotropic cells in the anterior pituitary to produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). • ACTH binds with cells in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. • Increased ACTH promotes the production of cortisol, the major gluco...

Lipid absorption - end products & transport mechanism

By: HWC, Views: 449

• The end products, fatty acids and monoglycerides, depend on bile salts for absorption. • Bile salts form micelles (tiny spheres), which ferry fatty acids and monoglycerides to epithelial cells. • Free fatty acids, monoglycerides, and some phospholipids and cholesterol molecules, dif...

System organization - PPM system types (Somatic, Autonomic & Enteric) and Reflex arc types

By: HWC, Views: 785

• The PNS consists of all nervous tissue outside of the CNS. • It is divided into three functional components: • Somatic nervous system (SNS) • Autonomic nervous system (ANS) • Enteric nervous system (ENS) • The SNS consists of: • Sensory neurons from skeletal muscles ...

hGH, Thyroid hormones & Aldosterone

By: HWC, Views: 648

Glycogenolysis and lipolysis • Stressors stimulate production of a hypothalamic releasing hormone (GHRH). • The releasing hormone stimulates somatotroph cells of anterior pituitary to secrete human growth hormone. • Human growth hormone targets liver cells and fat cells. hGH (glycog...

Lipid catabolism - lipolysis and beta oxidation and oxidation of fatty acids

By: HWC, Views: 784

• Digestion hydrolyzes lipids into fatty acids and glycerol. • Fatty acids and glycerol are: • Oxidized to generate ATP. • Used to produce triglycerides that are stored as energy reserves in adipose tissue. • Lipid catabolism begins with lipolysis in which lipids are broken do...

Erythropoietin (EPO)

By: HWC, Views: 176

■ Secreted by kidney cells when blood oxygen is low. ■ Targets cells in red bone marrow that will become red blood cells. ■ Promotes increased numbers of mature red blood cells. ■ More mature red blood cells carry more oxygen so blood oxygen level is restored to normal.