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Results for: 'antigen-MHC complexes'

Cell mediated immune response to a viral infection Animation

By: HWC, Views: 2611

Intracellular pathogens are the targets of cell-mediated immune response. The process begins when a virus infects a macrophage. Another macrophage engulfs the same virus or an antigen from it. In both cells, enzymes cleave the viral antigens into small bits. The fragments move to the cell sur...

Types of antimicrobial substances (interferons & complement protein)

By: HWC, Views: 6618

• Found in blood and interstitial fluids. • Discourage microbial growth. • Include interferon and complement proteins. • Produced and released by virus-infected lymphocytes. • Enter new cells and inhibit viral replication. • Act against a large variety of viruses (non-speci...

B cells and antibodies

By: HWC, Views: 7355

What Are Antibodies? Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, are Y-shaped proteins that are produced by the immune system to help stop intruders from harming the body. When an intruder enters the body, the immune system springs into action. These invaders, which are called antigens, can be vi...

Helper T cell receptors, activation, proliferation, differentiation & action

By: HWC, Views: 6653

• Most cells which have CD4 on their surface become Helper T cells (TN cells). • The CD4 1 cells only recognize a foreign antigen when it is presented with an antigen presenting immune cell (APC) that includes MHC-II protein. • The Helper T cell antigen receptor must match the presented...

Role of complement proteins

By: HWC, Views: 6321

• Non-specific and specific defense mechanisms work through the functions of complement proteins. • As soon as pathogens penetrate the physical barrier of the skin, other resistance mechanisms begin. • Cells, such as macrophages, phagocytize pathogens. • These cells increase exposu...

Segmentation and migrating motility complexes & Gastroileal reflex

By: HWC, Views: 6475

• Within a few hours, most of the stomach contents are in the duodenum. • Distension of stretch receptors in the small intestine activates a reflex that stimulates segmentation, a mixing movement. • During segmentation, sections of the intestine are constricted. • This movement incr...

Cytotoxic T cell receptors, activation, proliferation, differentiation & action

By: HWC, Views: 6901

• Most cells which have CD8 on their surface become cytotoxic T cells (Tc cells). • CD8 T cells recognize a foreign antigen when it is presented in conjunction with the protein, MHC-I. • Nearly all nucleated cells in the body express MHC-I molecules. • T cells that recognize self-pe...

Immune responses Animation

By: HWC, Views: 3435

Overview of interactions in antibody-mediated and cell-mediated immunity Animation The antibody mediated immune response begins when a naive B cell encounters antigens from a pathogen, such as a bacterium. The B cell binds, processes, and displays this antigen. It is now an antigen-presenti...

Mitochondrial Structure & ETC Protein Complexes (Protein Complexes and Electron Transport)

By: HWC, Views: 6127

The energy carrying molecules, NADH and FADH2, that were generated in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, now are processed in the mitochondria where their high energy electrons are deposited in an electron chain complex located in the inner mitochondrial membranes. These high-energy electrons now dr...

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