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Results for: 'bacterial plasmid'

Transferring genes into plants Animation

By: HWC, Views: 110

Researchers extract DNA from an organism that has a trait they want to introduce into a plant. The genetic donor can be a bacterial cell, a plant cell. or even an animal cell. The desired gene will be transferred into a plasmid, a small circle of bacterial DNA. The gene is cut out of th...

How antibiotics works? đź’Š

By: HWC, Views: 2560

The Crisis in Antibiotic Resistance More than 70 years ago, Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin. A few decades later, when this antibiotic was used in World War II, Fleming's discovery had revolutionized medicine. No longer did people have to die from something as trivial as an infected cut.Y...

Hershey Chase Experiments

By: HWC, Views: 202

Hershey and Chase knew that T4 bacteriophages consist of proteins and DNA. They asked which viral component must enter a bacterial cell to infect it: DNA or protein? They grew viruses with either radioactive sulfur, which labels the viral protein, or radioactive phosphorus, which labels DNA. ...

Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Drug Resistance and Natural Selection

By: HWC, Views: 1878

The evolution of drug resistance in microorganisms, such as M. tuberculosis, that cause human diseases is of particular concern to biologists. When Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects the lungs of humans, it causes the disease tuberculosis, also called TB. Once infected, the lungs act as a new...

Conjunctivitis

By: Administrator, Views: 5953

Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, is inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid. It makes the eye appear pink or reddish. Pain, burning, scratchiness, or itchiness may occur. The affected eye may have increased tears or be "stuck shu...

Non-specific disease resistance mechanisms & Skin's defense barriers

By: HWC, Views: 2980

• Non-specific disease resistance acts quickly to fight a wide variety of invaders. • Mechanisms include: • Barriers • Antimicrobial substances • Cellular defenses • Inflammation • Fever Barriers - types • Physical and chemical bathers prevent invasion by micro...

Pneumonia Animation

By: Administrator, Views: 5790

Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli. Typically symptoms include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing. Severity is variable. In adults, bacteria are the most common causes of ...

Proteins Defined, Hierarchy & Composition of Cells

By: HWC, Views: 2531

Proteins are long chains of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. Together with the other three biological macromolecules—carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids—proteins are the building blocks of cells. Proteins are the most complex and abundant biological macromolecules in cel...

Hierarchical Sequencing Method - Sequence Tagged Sites

By: HWC, Views: 2278

In the hierarchical sequencing method, researchers begin by collecting cells. In humans, each cell contains 23 pairs of chromo-somes. Here we specifically track the DNA from just one of the 23 pairs. Chromosomes have a series of unique DNA sequences, called sequence-tagged sites (STSs), that a...

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