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Results for: 'bacterium'

Griffith's experiments

By: HWC, Views: 334

In the late 1920s, Fred Griffith was attempting to develop a vaccine against a bacterium that causes pneumonia. To find out why two strains of the bacteria differed in their deadliness, he injected mice with four different mixtures. Mice injected with R cells remained healthy. When Griffith ex...

Transferring genes into plants Animation

By: HWC, Views: 330

Researchers extract DNA from an organism that has a trait they want to introduce into a plant. The genetic donor can be a bacterial cell, a plant cell. or even an animal cell. The desired gene will be transferred into a plasmid, a small circle of bacterial DNA. The gene is cut out of th...

How antibiotics works? đź’Š

By: HWC, Views: 2823

The Crisis in Antibiotic Resistance More than 70 years ago, Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin. A few decades later, when this antibiotic was used in World War II, Fleming's discovery had revolutionized medicine. No longer did people have to die from something as trivial as an infected cut.Y...

Immune responses Animation

By: HWC, Views: 57

Overview of interactions in antibody-mediated and cell-mediated immunity Animation The antibody mediated immune response begins when a naive B cell encounters antigens from a pathogen, such as a bacterium. The B cell binds, processes, and displays this antigen. It is now an antigen-presenti...

Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Drug Resistance and Natural Selection

By: HWC, Views: 2120

The evolution of drug resistance in microorganisms, such as M. tuberculosis, that cause human diseases is of particular concern to biologists. When Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects the lungs of humans, it causes the disease tuberculosis, also called TB. Once infected, the lungs act as a new...

Pores and Ion Channels

By: HWC, Views: 2625

Transmembrane channels, also called membrane channels, are pores within a lipid bilayer. The channels can be formed by protein complexes that run across the membrane or by peptides. They may cross the cell membrane, connecting the cytosol, or cytoplasm, to the extracellular matrix. Membrane po...


By: Administrator, Views: 146

Gonorrhea, colloquially known as the clap, is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infection may involve the genitals, mouth, or rectum. Infected men may experience pain or burning with urination, discharge from the penis, or testicular pain. Infec...

Proteins Defined, Hierarchy & Composition of Cells

By: HWC, Views: 2767

Proteins are long chains of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. Together with the other three biological macromolecules—carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids—proteins are the building blocks of cells. Proteins are the most complex and abundant biological macromolecules in cel...

The Lac Operon in E. Coli

By: Administrator, Views: 7380

The lac operon (lactose operon) is an operon required for the transport and metabolism of lactose in Escherichia coli and many other enteric bacteria. Although glucose is the preferred carbon source for most bacteria, the lac operon allows for the effective digestion of lactose when glucose is no...