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Results for: 'fatty acids'

Lipid catabolism - lipolysis and beta oxidation and oxidation of fatty acids

By: HWC, Views: 2064

• Digestion hydrolyzes lipids into fatty acids and glycerol. • Fatty acids and glycerol are: • Oxidized to generate ATP. • Used to produce triglycerides that are stored as energy reserves in adipose tissue. • Lipid catabolism begins with lipolysis in which lipids are broken do...

Lipid absorption - end products & transport mechanism

By: HWC, Views: 1649

• The end products, fatty acids and monoglycerides, depend on bile salts for absorption. • Bile salts form micelles (tiny spheres), which ferry fatty acids and monoglycerides to epithelial cells. • Free fatty acids, monoglycerides, and some phospholipids and cholesterol molecules, dif...

Major Elements in Biological Molecules: Lipids

By: HWC, Views: 1328

A triglyceride (also called triacylglycerol) is composed of three fatty acid molecules and one glycerol molecule. The fatty acids attach to the glycerol molecule by a covalent ester bond. The long hydrocarbon chain of each fatty acid makes the triglyceride molecule nonpolar and hydrophobic. Pa...

Non-polar compounds - insolubility

By: HWC, Views: 2086

• A non-polar molecule has uniform distribution of electrons. • Non-polar compounds like fatty acids in lipids have a high proportion of carbon and hydrogen. • Lipids possess no charge or partial charge. • Lipids are not attracted to water molecules. • Lipids are not soluble in...

Lipid digestion - mouth, stomach and small intestine

By: HWC, Views: 1696

• Lipid digestion takes place primarily in the small intestine; some occurs in the mouth and stomach. • Lipases are enzymes that break down triglycerides and phospholipids. • Lingual and gastric lipases hydrolyze a small amount of triglycerides. • End products are fatty acids and...

ACTH/Cortisol (glycogenolysis, protein catabolism, lipolysis and gluconeogenesis)

By: HWC, Views: 1863

• A decline in blood glucose concentration stimulates corticotropic cells in the anterior pituitary to produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). • ACTH binds with cells in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. • Increased ACTH promotes the production of cortisol, the major gluco...

Lipid catabolism ( ketogenesis and oxidation of glycerol) and Lipid anabolism (lipogenesis)

By: HWC, Views: 2135

• During excessive beta oxidation, the two-carbon fatty acid fragments are converted into acidic ketone bodies. • Ketosis, the overproduction of ketone bodies, can lead to acidosis (ketoacidosis) of the blood. • After lipolysis, glycerol is converted to pyruvic acid. • Pyruvic aci...

Protein catabolism (Krebs cycle) and Protein anabolism (protein synthesis)

By: HWC, Views: 2139

• Deaminated acids are brought into the Krebs cycle to be oxidized to CO2 and H2O. • Before entering the Krebs cycle, the deaminated acids are converted into intermediate products (pyruvic acid, acetyl coenzyme A, carbonic acids). • In the Krebs cycle, amino acids are oxidized to form r...

Secretin (inhibiting gastric acid secretion), Cholecystokinin (fat digestion) & Cholecystokinin

By: HWC, Views: 1662

• As chyme approaches the small intestine, secretin also targets acid-producing parietal cells in the gastric mucosa. • Increased secretin inhibits gastric add secretion. • With less gastric acid produced, the chyme going into the intestine is less acidic. • The hormone CCK also reg...