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Methods that regulate pH

By: HWC, Views: 396

• The blood flow redistributes fluids that have different pH values between body regions. • The regulation of the blood pH is important to maintain homeostasis. • Blood pH is regulated by: • Chemical buffers. • The respiratory system. • The urinary system. • All thes...

Role of transport in a cell

By: HWC, Views: 367

Transport of chemicals across the plasma membrane provides the following functions: Importing molecules for the maintenance of metabolic processes. Exporting chemicals produced by the cell or waste products. Communicating with other cells, allowing for the generation and conduction of a...

Acid-base imbalances - metabolic acidosis and alkalosis

By: HWC, Views: 357

• Metabolic acidosis typically results from very low HCO3- ion blood concentrations. • Metabolic alkalosis typically results from very high HCO3- ion blood concentrations.

T cell receptors

By: HWC, Views: 96

• T cells are responsible for cell-mediated immunity. • Each T cell contains a unique form of T cell receptor (TCR) on its membrane. • These T cell receptors are produced through a process of genetic recombination which is able to produce millions of different variations. • Each T ce...

Acid-base imbalances - respiratory acidosis and alkalosis

By: HWC, Views: 356

• The individual mechanisms involved in regulating pH work in concert with each other to ensure that blood pH is maintained within the normal range. • The two categories of pH imbalance are: • Respiratory • Metabolic • Both types of imbalances can cause either acidosis or alka...

Secondary Active Transport

By: HWC, Views: 368

Energy stored (in a hydrogen or sodium concentration gradient) is used to drive other substances against their own concentration gradients Secondary active transport, is transport of molecules across the cell membrane utilizing energy in other forms than ATP. In many cells, antiporters mov...

Bone Growth and Remodeling

By: HWC, Views: 415

• After birth, bones grow in thickness and length. • Bones grow in diameter via appositional growth at the periosteum. • Epiphyseal plates enable lengthwise growth of long bones, such as the humerus, by interstitial growth. • Bone remodeling accommodates changing needs. • While th...

Normal and abnormal blood pH

By: HWC, Views: 364

• Dissociation of the chemical substances in the body fluids can result in the production of free hydrogen ions. • The pH scale is used to measure the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution. • Normal blood pH values vary around 7.4. • When hydrogen ion concentration increases, t...

Summary of glucose catabolism

By: HWC, Views: 256

■ The complete oxidation of one glucose molecule produces the following ATP molecules in each step. • Glycolysis; • Formation of acetyl CoA; • Krebs cycle; • Electron transport chain. ■ In addition, glucose catabolism produces six CO2 molecules and water.