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Results for: 'transgenic cells'

Transferring genes into plants Animation

By: HWC, Views: 110

Researchers extract DNA from an organism that has a trait they want to introduce into a plant. The genetic donor can be a bacterial cell, a plant cell. or even an animal cell. The desired gene will be transferred into a plasmid, a small circle of bacterial DNA. The gene is cut out of th...

Erythropoietin (EPO)

By: HWC, Views: 2451

■ Secreted by kidney cells when blood oxygen is low. ■ Targets cells in red bone marrow that will become red blood cells. ■ Promotes increased numbers of mature red blood cells. ■ More mature red blood cells carry more oxygen so blood oxygen level is restored to normal.

T cell receptors

By: HWC, Views: 2742

• T cells are responsible for cell-mediated immunity. • Each T cell contains a unique form of T cell receptor (TCR) on its membrane. • These T cell receptors are produced through a process of genetic recombination which is able to produce millions of different variations. • Each T ce...

Cytotoxic T cell receptors, activation, proliferation, differentiation & action

By: HWC, Views: 3001

• Most cells which have CD8 on their surface become cytotoxic T cells (Tc cells). • CD8 T cells recognize a foreign antigen when it is presented in conjunction with the protein, MHC-I. • Nearly all nucleated cells in the body express MHC-I molecules. • T cells that recognize self-pe...

Cardiac conductile cells

By: HWC, Views: 2916

• In order for the heart to function properly, all of its cells must contract in a specific sequence. This sequence is determined by a pathway known as the conduction system. • Cardiac muscle cells have two attributes that enable the conduction system to work: • Connective. Action pot...

Griffith's experiments

By: HWC, Views: 93

In the late 1920s, Fred Griffith was attempting to develop a vaccine against a bacterium that causes pneumonia. To find out why two strains of the bacteria differed in their deadliness, he injected mice with four different mixtures. Mice injected with R cells remained healthy. When Griffith ex...

Introduction to Insulin

By: Administrator, Views: 6146

The islets of Langerhans are composed of three major types of cells: Alpha cells secrete glucagon, elevating blood sugar. Beta cells secrete insulin, maintaining normal blood sugar. Delta cells secrete somatostatin, which suppresses release of glucagon and insulin. Hyposecretion or inadequa...

Helper T cell receptors, activation, proliferation, differentiation & action

By: HWC, Views: 2964

• Most cells which have CD4 on their surface become Helper T cells (TN cells). • The CD4 1 cells only recognize a foreign antigen when it is presented with an antigen presenting immune cell (APC) that includes MHC-II protein. • The Helper T cell antigen receptor must match the presented...

Red Blood Cells - Erythropoietin (EPO)

By: HWC, Views: 3030

• The endocrine system maintains many body conditions within normal limits with feedback loops. Each endocrine feedback loop maintains homeostasis using the following components: • Stimulus - a change in a body condition. • Production cell - an endocrine cell that produces a hormone aft...