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Results for: 'viruses'

Hershey Chase Experiments

By: HWC, Views: 202

Hershey and Chase knew that T4 bacteriophages consist of proteins and DNA. They asked which viral component must enter a bacterial cell to infect it: DNA or protein? They grew viruses with either radioactive sulfur, which labels the viral protein, or radioactive phosphorus, which labels DNA. ...

Bacteriophage (Virus) - Mice Experiment

By: HWC, Views: 2220

Also known as phages, these viruses can be found everywhere bacteria exist including, in the soil, deep within the earth's crust, inside plants and animals, and even in the oceans. Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses of bacteria that can kill and lyse the bacteria they infect. ... The lethalit...

HIV Infection: Viral life cycle

By: HWC, Views: 2395

The series of steps that HIV follows to multiply in the body. The process begins when HIV encounters a CD4 cell. The seven steps in the HIV life cycle are: 1) binding; 2) fusion; 3) reverse transcription; 4) integration; 5) replication; 6) assembly; and 7) budding. Many viruses f...

Types of disease resistance: innate defenses & immunity

By: HWC, Views: 2984

Our immune system protects us and helps fight off disease. Microorganisms, small microscopic organisms, and viruses are everywhere. Ever thought about how many are on that door you just opened? Many microbes and viruses can cause disease and are termed pathogens. Plants and animals have what i...

Cytotoxic T cell receptors, activation, proliferation, differentiation & action

By: HWC, Views: 3001

• Most cells which have CD8 on their surface become cytotoxic T cells (Tc cells). • CD8 T cells recognize a foreign antigen when it is presented in conjunction with the protein, MHC-I. • Nearly all nucleated cells in the body express MHC-I molecules. • T cells that recognize self-pe...

How antibiotics works? 💊

By: HWC, Views: 2560

The Crisis in Antibiotic Resistance More than 70 years ago, Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin. A few decades later, when this antibiotic was used in World War II, Fleming's discovery had revolutionized medicine. No longer did people have to die from something as trivial as an infected cut.Y...

B cells and antibodies

By: HWC, Views: 3171

What Are Antibodies? Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, are Y-shaped proteins that are produced by the immune system to help stop intruders from harming the body. When an intruder enters the body, the immune system springs into action. These invaders, which are called antigens, can be vi...

How proteins function? How do proteins work?

By: HWC, Views: 2632

How proteins function is really about how proteins "do work" in cells. How do proteins work? Let's start thinking about protein function by looking at something important to you: your hair. Keratin is a structural protein that is composed of 2 intertwined or helical strands. Keratin is also f...

Types of antimicrobial substances (interferons & complement protein)

By: HWC, Views: 2887

• Found in blood and interstitial fluids. • Discourage microbial growth. • Include interferon and complement proteins. • Produced and released by virus-infected lymphocytes. • Enter new cells and inhibit viral replication. • Act against a large variety of viruses (non-speci...