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Results for: 'Intracellular pathogens'

Cell mediated immune response to a viral infection Animation

By: HWC, Views: 1412

Intracellular pathogens are the targets of cell-mediated immune response. The process begins when a virus infects a macrophage. Another macrophage engulfs the same virus or an antigen from it. In both cells, enzymes cleave the viral antigens into small bits. The fragments move to the cell sur...

Role of complement proteins

By: HWC, Views: 5239

• Non-specific and specific defense mechanisms work through the functions of complement proteins. • As soon as pathogens penetrate the physical barrier of the skin, other resistance mechanisms begin. • Cells, such as macrophages, phagocytize pathogens. • These cells increase exposu...

Types of disease resistance: innate defenses & immunity

By: HWC, Views: 5595

Our immune system protects us and helps fight off disease. Microorganisms, small microscopic organisms, and viruses are everywhere. Ever thought about how many are on that door you just opened? Many microbes and viruses can cause disease and are termed pathogens. Plants and animals have what i...

Chemical Buffers - protein buffer, phosphate buffer system and bicarbonate buffer system

By: HWC, Views: 5652

• There are a variety of chemicals in body fluids that prevent the fluids from undergoing large changes in. • These chemicals buffer or regulate fluctuations in H+ concentration. • Chemical buffers: • Bind to H+ ions when there are too many in a solution so pH remains normal. •...

Plant Defense Mechanisms from Pathogens

By: HWC, Views: 4721

Plants and pathogens have coevolved such that pathogens can recognize plants by the sugars, or other molecules, they produce. Plants, in turn, can recognize pathogens by the molecules they produce. The ability to recognize pathogens allows plants to activate defense systems that can prevent wides...

Primary and secondary response to infection

By: HWC, Views: 5093

• Pathogens enter the body by penetrating the non-specific barriers in the skin and mucus membranes. • Pathogens first encounter macrophages and natural killer cells that carry out phagocytosis and cytolysis respectively. • A pathogen's first encounter with the immune system can promo...

Barriers - eye structures, digestive mucosa, respiratory mucosa & genitourinary mucosa

By: HWC, Views: 5397

• Eyebrows, eyelids, eyelashes and conjunctiva serve to trap microbes preventing their invasion. • Tearing (lacrimation) is a protective mechanism that washes away microbes that attempt to enter the eyes. • Salts, mucus, and lysozymes in tears neutralize substances and bacteria. ...

Second Messengers in the Inositol-lipid Signaling Pathway

By: HWC, Views: 4604

Extracellular signals produce specific responses in target cells through the action of intracellular second messengers. Here, we focus on three second messengers, IP3, DAG, and Ca2+, all involved in the inositol-lipid signaling pathway. A hormone-receptor signal on the cell surface leads to the a...

Introduction to Genetics

By: Administrator, Views: 8295

Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms. Gregor Mendel, a scientist and Augustinian friar, discovered genetics in the late 19th-century. Mendel studied "trait inheritance", patterns in the way traits are handed down from p...