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Results for: 'glycolytic pathway'

Lipid catabolism ( ketogenesis and oxidation of glycerol) and Lipid anabolism (lipogenesis)

By: HWC, Views: 2135

• During excessive beta oxidation, the two-carbon fatty acid fragments are converted into acidic ketone bodies. • Ketosis, the overproduction of ketone bodies, can lead to acidosis (ketoacidosis) of the blood. • After lipolysis, glycerol is converted to pyruvic acid. • Pyruvic aci...

Second Messengers in the Inositol-lipid Signaling Pathway

By: HWC, Views: 1216

Extracellular signals produce specific responses in target cells through the action of intracellular second messengers. Here, we focus on three second messengers, IP3, DAG, and Ca2+, all involved in the inositol-lipid signaling pathway. A hormone-receptor signal on the cell surface leads to the a...

Cellular Respiration & Glucose Mobilization (Glucose transport & Phosphorylation of Glucose)

By: HWC, Views: 1651

Glucose is completely broken down into CO2 and H2O during the process of cellular respiration, which includes 3 stages: 1) glycolysis; 2) the Krebs Cycle; and 3) the electron transport chain. Glucose enters this energy yielding pathway of cellular respiration in the first stage known as...

Fermentation - When Oxygen Is Absent, Pyruvate to Lactate & Pyruvate to Ethanol

By: HWC, Views: 1628

Pyruvate is the end product of glycolysis. If oxygen is present, pyruvate enters the mitochondrion where further energy yielding reactions of the Krebs cycle will take place. However, if oxygen is not present, pyruvate will enter a pathway called fermentation. This pathway regenerates NAD+ fro...

Neural Reflex Arc Animation

By: Administrator, Views: 5046

A reflex arc is a neural pathway that controls a reflex. In vertebrates, most sensory neurons do not pass directly into the brain, but synapse in the spinal cord. This allows for faster reflex actions to occur by activating spinal motor neurons without the delay of routing signals through the bra...

Types of antimicrobial substances (interferons & complement protein)

By: HWC, Views: 1866

• Found in blood and interstitial fluids. • Discourage microbial growth. • Include interferon and complement proteins. • Produced and released by virus-infected lymphocytes. • Enter new cells and inhibit viral replication. • Act against a large variety of viruses (non-speci...

Coaductile pathway, Timing of contraction signal & Conduction system and ECG

By: HWC, Views: 2033

• When the system is healthy, the signal to contract the entire conduction system originates in the SA node - known as the heart's pacemaker. • The SA node triggers contraction because it depolarizes at a faster rate than other parts of the conduction system. • The wave of excitation fr...

Language Areas Animation

By: Administrator, Views: 4895

Specific language areas of the brain. Many cortical (and non-cortical!) regions are involved in language processing. The primary language pathway begins in Wernicke’s area (posterior temporal lobe), which receives information from the auditory and visual cortices and assigns meaning (= lang...

Krebs cycle : Formation of acetyl coenzyme A and Electron transport chain

By: HWC, Views: 2080

The oxidation of glucose to produce ATP is cellular respiration. Four sets of reactions are involved: Glycolysis Formation of acetyl coenzyme A Krebs cycle reactions Electron transport chain reactions • The second pathway of glucose catabolism, formation of acetyl coenzyme A, is a transi...