Search Results

Results for: 'amino acid'

Structure of Amino Acid, Peptide Bonds & Polypeptides

By: HWC, Views: 4980

Here are the molecular formulas of three different amino acids. All amino acids share this backbone. The main difference between every amino acid is the side groups seen here, and these side groups give each of the amino acids their different characteristics. But before we get into that, let's ...

Major Elements in Biological Molecules: Proteins

By: HWC, Views: 4757

Proteins are chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. The 20 different amino acids used to make all proteins differ only in their side chains, and the properties of these side chains account for the great diversity of protein structure and function. Collagen is an example of how a prote...

Transcription—A molecular view

By: HWC, Views: 945

Transcription, as related to genomics, is the process of making an RNA copy of a gene's DNA sequence. This copy, called messenger RNA (mRNA), carries the gene's protein information encoded in DNA. During transcription, a DNA molecule is copied into RNA molecules that are then used to translate...

Protein catabolism (Krebs cycle) and Protein anabolism (protein synthesis)

By: HWC, Views: 5599

• Deaminated acids are brought into the Krebs cycle to be oxidized to CO2 and H2O. • Before entering the Krebs cycle, the deaminated acids are converted into intermediate products (pyruvic acid, acetyl coenzyme A, carbonic acids). • In the Krebs cycle, amino acids are oxidized to form r...


By: HWC, Views: 4417

Living things must accomplish a great number of tasks just to get through a day, and these tasks are accomplished by a diverse range of biological molecules. In the range of tasks that molecules accomplish, however, proteins reign supreme. Almost every chemical reaction that takes place in living...

Protein Secondary and Tertiary Structures - Animation

By: HWC, Views: 1483

Amino acid sequence dictates a protein's final shape. The presence of certain amino acids favors a pattern of hydrogen bonding that causes part of the polypeptide chain to coil and twist into an alpha helix. The presence of other amino acids enables hydrogen bonding between strand like r...

Protein digestion - stomach & small intestine

By: HWC, Views: 4963

• Protein digestion occurs in the stomach and small intestine. • The stomach enzyme pepsin initiates the process. • Pancreatic and intestinal brush border enzymes complete the digestive process. • In the stomach, pepsin is created from pepsinogen in the presence of pH-lowering hyd...

Protein catabolism - deamination

By: HWC, Views: 5490

• Digestion hydrolyzes proteins into amino acids, which are transported to the bloodstream. • Amino acids and proteins are not stored. • Instead, they are: • Oxidized to generate ATP. • Used to synthesize new proteins. • Converted to carbohydrates or lipids for storage (if e...

Glycolysis - and oxygen

By: HWC, Views: 5462

The first reactions involve a single 6-carbon glucose sugar undergoing phosphorylation using two ATP molecules and resulting in two 3-carbon compounds. • The rest of this pathway involves an oxidation reduction reaction, forming two reduced coenzymes, and generation of four ATP molecules. ...