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Atrial natriuretic peptide (vasodilation) & Aldosterone

By: HWC, Views: 6411

• Certain situations will cause the body's stress level to rise. • increased blood pressure will stretch the atria of the heart, stimulating the secretion of atria natriuretic peptide (MP). • ANP causes muscle cells in blood vessels to relax. • Blood pressure is lowered as a result ...

Stress and Immune System Animation

By: Administrator, Views: 9955

How stress and the immune system are linked. Immune response declines with age, limiting body's ability to identify and fight foreign substances. Loss of thymus cortex leads to reduced production of T lymphocytes, including T cells, NK cells, B lymphocytes. Frequency and severity of infectio...

Bone processes - resorption and deposition, remodeling and response to stress in adult bones

By: HWC, Views: 6995

• The process of remodeling bone tissues involves bone cells resorbing or depositing minerals into bone tissue. • During resorption, bone cells break down bone tissue and release calcium and other minerals for use by other cells in the body. • Bone cells also rebuild bone tissue by depo...

Oxygen - hemoglobin dissociation curve & Hemoglobin's affinity with oxygen - acidity

By: HWC, Views: 7368

• The partial pressure of oxygen is a primary factor influencing the degree of saturation of hemoglobin. • The Po2 determines the number of oxygen molecules that can bind or dissociate from hemoglobin. • Blood in vessels coming from the lungs is very high in Po2 so saturation is high. ...

The Pressure Flow Model in a Plant

By: HWC, Views: 6096

The vascular system of plants has two transport tissues, called xylem and phloem. Xylem transports water and minerals, while phloem transports a variety of dissolved substances, including sugars and amino acids, throughout the plant. Water in the xylem always moves up, in the direction from th...

Carbohydrate digestion (brush border enzymes, end products) & Carb absorption (fructose, galactose)

By: HWC, Views: 6770

• Carbohydrate digestion concludes in microvilli of the small intestine, in brush border epithelial cells. Carbohydrate digestion -brush border enzymes • Four brush-border enzymes are involved: • Alpha-dextrinase breaks down alpha-dextrin chains by removing glucose units. • Sucras...

Carbon fixing adaptations Animation

By: HWC, Views: 701

Different plants trap carbon by different pathways. Most C3 plants evolved in moist, temperate zones. On hot dry days they close their stomata to conserve water and oxygen accumulates. Under these circumstances, the enzyme rubisco uses oxygen in an inefficient reaction that competes with t...

Introduction to Sickle Cell Anemia

By: Administrator, Views: 10155

Sickle cell anemia (sickle cell disease) is a disorder of the blood caused by an inherited abnormal hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying protein within the red blood cells). The abnormal hemoglobin causes distorted (sickled appearing under a microscope) red blood cells.

Sperm Formation

By: HWC, Views: 4693

Spermatogenesis takes place inside the seminiferous tubules. Diploid spermatogonia located near the outer edge of the tubule divide mitotically to form primary spermatocytes. The first meiotic division produces secondary spermatocytes with a haploid number of duplicated chromosomes. T...