Effect of blood chemistry - stimuli, hyperventilation response and hypoventilation response

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• Respiratory rate is effected by changes in: • Blood pH. • Blood Pco2. • Blood P02. • Chemoreceptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems closely monitor the Fr, CO2 and 02 levels in blood. • Changes in frequency of impulses from Chemoreceptors affect respiratory rate. • When CO2 and H+ levels increase, or O2 level drops, increased impulses from the chemoreceptors stimulate the inspiratory area in the medullary rhythmicity area. • Excitation of the inspiratory area increases respiratory rate. • Hyperventilation is a greater intensity of rate and depth of breathing. • Increased respiratory rate: • Removes CO2. • Increases pH. • Increases oxygen inflow, returning values to normal. • When CO2 and H+ levels decrease or O2 level rises, decreased impulses from the chemoreceptors inhibit the inspiratory area in the medullary rhythmicity area. • Inhibition of the inspiratory area decreases respiratory rate. • Hypoventilation is a decreased intensity of rate and depth of breathing. • Decreased respiratory rate: • Allows CO2 to accumulate. • Decreases pH. • Decreases oxygen inflow, promoting a return to normal values.

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