Control of ventilation rate by other brain centers (posts, hypothalamus & cerebral cortex)




Forced ventilation: • The inspiratory area stimulates accessory inspiratory muscles. • Inspiration is more forceful. • Inspiratory area activates expiratory area, which sends impulses to the expiratory muscles (internal intercostals and abdominal muscles). • Expiration muscles contract, resulting in forced expiration. • Two areas in the pons can modify ventilation rate. • Pneumottudc area: • Inhibits medullary rhythmicity area. • Shortens inspiration phase. • Results in short rapid breathing. • Apneustic area: • Stimulates inspiratory area. • Prolongs the inspiration phase. • Results in slower, deeper breathing. • Hypothalamus: • Emotions, pain and body temperature changes activate centers in the hypothalamus. • These centers, in turn, stimulate the respiratory centers in the pons and medulla, altering the ventilation rate. • Cortical Centers: • Impulses from the cerebral cortex can bypass the respiratory centers in the pons and medulla. • This pathway allows us to consciously alter our breathing patterns.



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