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Results for: 'ATP'

Frequency of stimulation and force (Recruitment of motor units and force)

By: HWC, Views: 3705

• Muscle tension depends on the frequency of stimulation. • Muscle twitch: First stimulus. • Wave summation: When a second stimulus excites a partially relaxed muscle, producing a stronger contraction. • Unfused tetanus: Successive stimulations at the same frequency, producing a se...

Role of ATP in muscle movement

By: HWC, Views: 3384

• Muscle cells use ATP to power contraction and movement. • The hydrolysis of ATP to ADP releases • ATP can be regenerated by adding to ADP. • During muscular contraction, ATP molecules: • Energize the myosin head • Detach myosin from actin • ATP must be then regenerat...

Energy sources - types

By: HWC, Views: 3360

• The amount of ATP stored in a skeletal muscle cell can only provide muscular activity for two to three seconds. • Muscle cells must be able to generate additional molecules of ATP to continue contracting. • Muscle cells can generate ATP from several processes: • Phosphogen syste...

Primary Active Transport - electrochemical gradient and ion transport / water movement

By: HWC, Views: 3300

Energy derived from ATP changes the shape of a transporter protein which pumps a substance across a plasma membrane against its concentration gradient An electrochemical gradient is a gradient of electrochemical potential, usually for an ion that can move across a membrane. The gradient consis...

Secondary Active Transport

By: HWC, Views: 3490

Energy stored (in a hydrogen or sodium concentration gradient) is used to drive other substances against their own concentration gradients Secondary active transport, is transport of molecules across the cell membrane utilizing energy in other forms than ATP. In many cells, antiporters mov...

Muscle cell structures - actin, myosin and titin filaments

By: HWC, Views: 3365

Once the muscle cell has been excited it will contract. • A muscle action potential will trigger the release Of Ca2+ ions into the sarcoplasm. • The Ca2+ ions bind to the regulatory proteins and trigger contraction. • Within skeletal muscle cells are structures that provide the ability...

Contraction cycle of a sarcomere

By: HWC, Views: 3496

• A single nervous signal releases Ca2+ ions into the sarcoplasm and initiates the contraction cycle. step 1. ATP hydrolysis • ATP provides the to move myosin molecules back into the energized configuration necessary to perform the power stroke. Step 2. Crossbridge attachment • Myosin...

Hormonal regulation of pregnancy - weeks 17 through 38

By: HWC, Views: 3506

• Estrogens increase uterine blood flow, maintaining the endometrium during pregnancy. • High levels of estrogen and progesterone inhibit the synthesis of milk. Progesterone inhibits myometrial contractions of the uterus to prevent premature birth. • Relaxin inhibits myometrial contract...

Covalent bonds - role in the body

By: HWC, Views: 3249

A covalent bond is formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. This is opposed to an ionic bond, where electrons are actually transferred from one atom to another. Formation • Atoms fill up the outer orbital by sharing electrons. • Two oxygen atoms sharing electrons form on...