Glycolysis - and oxygen
Date Uploaded: 10/22/2019
The first reactions involve a single 6-carbon glucose sugar undergoing phosphorylation using two ATP molecules and resulting in two 3-carbon compounds. • The rest of this pathway involves an oxidation reduction reaction, forming two reduced coenzymes, and generation of four ATP molecules. • The end result of glycolysis of a single glucose molecule is the production of : • two ATP molecules • two reduced coenzymes • two molecules of pyruvic acid • The amount of oxygen available in the cell determines the fate of the pyruvic acid molecules. • If there is not enough oxygen in the cell then the pyruvic acid molecules will be converted into lactic acid. • The amount of oxygen available in the cell determines the fate of the pyruvic acid molecules. • If there is adequate oxygen in the cell, then the energy in the pyruvic acid molecules will be further harvested in the mitochondria. • Cells that lack mitochondria generate significantly fewer ATP molecules. • Red blood cells do not have mitochondria Oxidation-Reduction reactions are one category of reactions important in energy transfer. Oxidation involves the removal of electrons from an atom or molecule. An example is the conversion of lactic acid to pyruvic acid. Reduction involves the addition of electrons to a molecule. An example is the conversion of pyruvic acid to lactic acid. When a substance is oxidized, the liberated hydrogen atoms are transferred by 2 coenzymes to another compound. These are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Oxidation and reduction are always coupled. That is why the two reactions together are called oxidation-reduction or redox reactions. Some of the energy released during oxidation reactions is captured when ATP is formed. A phosphate group is added to ADP (phosphorylation) along with energy to form ATP. A high-energy bond is indicated by a “squiggle.” Carbohydrate metabolism is, in reality, mostly glucose metabolism. The body’s use of glucose depends on the needs of cells. These needs include: ATP production Amino acid synthesis Glycogen synthesis Triglyceride synthesis
You must login to add videos to your playlists.