Energy inputs and release in glycolysis Animation




Glycolysis breaks the six-carbon sugar glucose into two three-carbon molecules of pyruvate. The first steps of glycolysis require an energy input in the form of two phosphate-group transfers from ATP. These phosphorylations raise the energy level of glucose enough to allow the energy-releasing steps of glycolysis to take place. During the energy-releasing steps glucose is split into two three-carbon molecules. NAD+ picks up hydrogen and electrons from intermediates to become NADH and four ATP are produced. Because the first steps required an input of two ATP, the net yield of ATP from glycolysis is two ATP per molecule of glucose. Pyruvate and the electrons and hydrogen carried by NADH will be used in the later stages of aerobic respiration.



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