Ventilation - phases and driving forces




Respiration is the exchange of gases between the atmosphere, blood, and cells The combination of 3 processes is required for respiration to occur Ventilation (breathing) External (pulmonary) respiration Internal (tissue) respiration The cardiovascular system assists the respiratory system by transporting gases • The respiratory system is responsible for the movement of gases involved in cellular metabolism. • Oxygen is used up and carbon dioxide is generated during the aerobic breakdown of glucose and other fuel molecules in order to produce ATP. • Three important continuous physiological processes are responsible for the movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide. 1. Ventilation • Moves gases in and out of the lungs. 2. Gas Exchange • The movement of gases into and out of the blood. • Occurs at the lungs (external respiration) and at the tissues (internal respiration). 3. Gas Transport • Blood gases are transported to the lungs (pulmonary circulation). • Blood gases are transported to the organs and tissues throughout the body (systemic circulation). • Pulmonary ventilation is the process of bringing air into and out of the lungs: • Inspiration: air moves into the lungs. • Expiration: air moves out of the lungs. • Proper ventilation is important to promote airflow, which enhances gas exchange. • Direction of airflow is determined by changing pressures. • Air flows from high to low pressure. • Pressure can be altered by changing the volume.



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