Regulation of GFR: three methods, autoregulation & autoregulation via myogenic mechanism

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• GFR can be regulated by adjusting: • Blood flow in and out of the glomerular capillaries. • Surface area of glomerular capillaries. • There are three main ways to make these adjustments: • Renal autoregulation. • Nervous regulation. • Hormonal regulation. • Renal autoregulation occurs when the kidneys themselves regulate blood flow. • Two renal autoregulatory mechanisms maintain normal GFR over a wide range of systemic blood pressures. • As systemic blood pressure goes up, the smooth muscle cells in the afferent arterioles stretch. • The smooth muscle fibers of the afferent arterioles respond to stretching by contracting, reducing blood flow to the glomerular capillaries. • GFR decreases. • As systemic blood pressure goes down, the smooth muscle cells in the afferent arteriole relax. • The relaxation of the afferent arteriole allows greater blood flow to the capillaries. • GFR increases.

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